What did they sing at Cashel in 1172?: Winchester, Sarum and Romano-Frankish Chant in Ireland
Keywords:Cashel, chant, Winchester, Sarum, Anglo-Norman, Celtic rite, medieval liturgy, Ireland.
AbstractThe Second Council of Cashel in 1172, at which many of the Irish bishops swore fealty to King Henry II, is usually credited with the introduction of English and in particular, Sarum liturgical and musical usage to Ireland. This article examines the historical, musical and liturgical context of the Cashel gathering, challenging traditional interpretations of this event. It demonstrates that the Council could not have decreed the introduction of Sarum usage to Ireland and that Cashel was not a watershed heralding the demise of the ‘Celtic rite’. Using the earliest complete surviving Irish plainchant source (GB-Ob Rawl. C. 892), it suggests that the twelfth-century Irish Church was already open to a wide range of musical and liturgical influences from England (principally Winchester) and continental Europe. The musical and liturgical evidence from notated and un-notated twelfth-century sources obliges us to re-formulate our ideas about this important time of development and transition in Irish musical and cultural life.
How to Cite
Copyright for articles and reviews published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to be used, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
It is the responsibility of the author to secure (and, if necessary, pay for) written copyright permissions for the reproduction, in this online journal, of any illustrations, images, music notation, audio and video files, or any other copyright materials, that are included in the author's article.